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Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Key Knowledge Areas

  • Automate communication with users through logon messages

  • Inform active users of system maintenance

Terms and Utilities

  • /etc/issue

  • /etc/

  • /etc/motd

  • wall

  • /sbin/shutdown

  • /bin/systemctl

The /etc/issue, /etc/, and /etc/motd files

The /etc/issue, /etc/ and /etc/motd files are used to send simple messages to users that log in to the system. The /etc/motd is used to display a message after the user has authenticated successfully. The /etc/issue on the other hand is used to send a message to the user before they login. This message is only displayed to users that log in using the console and will often contain some information about the system like kernel version and architecture. The /etc/ file has the same purpose as the /etc/issue file but is used for insecure logins using telnet. It is possible to use the /etc/ file for ssh as well. For this to work you need to add or modify the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:

    Banner /etc/

When using /etc/ with ssh you should note that the special sequences may not work.

The wall command

wall wall is used to broadcast a message of at most 22 lines to all interactive terminals. By default the command can be used by any user, but often is reconfigured so only root can use it. A user not wishing to receive broadcast messages may use the mesg to write disable their terminals. The broadcaster may use the finger command to see which terminals are write disabled.

You can specify two options with the wall command: the -n option, which only works for the root user and the message itself. The -n suppresses the standard broadcast banner and replaces it with a remote broadcast banner. This option has meaning only when wall is used over the rpc.walld daemon. The second argument, the message itself can also be typed on stdin, in which case it must be terminated with an EOF (end of file, in most cases [Ctrl+D]{.keycombo}).

The shutdown command communication.

shutdown As its name suggests, the shutdown command is used to shutdown a server gracefully, stepping down through the run level kill scripts, and optionally halting, or rebooting the server. The shutdown command itself is not discussed here, and this small section explains only the communicative steps that shutdown takes before, and during the system shutdown.

The last argument to the shutdown may optionally be used to broadcast some custom message explaining the purpose of the shutdown, and when it is expected to be returned to production. For example:

    # shutdown -H +10 Server halting in 10 minutes for change change number. Expected up at 00:00:00.

Shutdown can be used with the -k. This makes shutdown do a 'dry-run': it emulates the shutdown, but does NOT shut down the system.

When you use the -k options you can append broadcast messages as part of the command line too, like in a "real" shutdown.

Note Please note that shutdown -k will still temporarily disallow user logins as it will create the /etc/nologin file. It will be removed after the 'dry run' but your users will not be able to log in into the system as long as it is there.

In the event that a running shutdown needs to be cancelled, the shutdown may be called with the -c option, and again a broadcast message added to the command line to inform the users of the U-turn. As with all forms of message broadcasts, the receiving terminals must be write enabled.

The systemctl command communication,

systemctl The systemctl the central management tool for the systemd init system. systemctl can be used to manage services, system states (runlevels) and config files.

Managing services

Starting and stopping services

Where you used the service command in sysVinit you will now use the systemctl command to manage services. If you are using a non-root user to run the command you will have to use sudo. The following example shows starting a service using the start command:

    $ systemctl start application.service

Because systemd knows you are running the system management commands on services you can also leave the .service suffix. For clarity we will keep using the suffix in the commands.

    $ systemctl start application

For some programs it is possible to start the application multiple times with different configuration files. In this case you can pass the name of the config file to the command using the @-sign. For example, to start the openvpn service twice with different configuration files you can use the following commands:

    $ systemctl start openvpn@config1.service
    $ systemctl start openvpn@config2.service

Because they changed the order of the parameters for the systemctl command you can also start and stop multiple services at once: The following example show stopping multiple services using the stop command:

    $ systemctl stop application1.service application2.service

Restarting and reloading services

For restarting a service you can use the restart command:

    $ systemctl restart application.service

If an application is able to reload it's configuration you can also use the reload command:

    $ systemctl reload application.server

If you not sure if a service can reload it's configuration you can also use the reload-or-restart command. This will reload is configuration if it is available, else it will restart the application:

    $systemctl reload-or-restart application.service

Enabling and disabling service

The previous commands are useful for starting and stopping services in the current session. If you want a service to start at boot, for which sysVinit use the chkconfig command, you have to enable them using systemctl:

    $ systemctl enable application.service

This enable command will create a symbolic link from this systems copy of the service file (which is usually found in /lib/systemd/system or /etc/systemd/system) to the directory where systemd looks for autostart files (usually /etc/systemd/system/ To disable a service from start at boot you use the disable command:

    $ systemctl disable application.service

This will remove the symbolic link that indicate that the service should start at boot.

Note Remember that enabling a service will not start it in the current session. To start and enable a service you will need to issue both the start and enable command

Checking the status of services

To check the current status of a service you can use the status command:

    $ systemctl status application.service

This command will give you the current state of the service, the cgroup hierarchy, and the first few log lines. It gives you a nice overview of the current status, and notifying you of any problems. For example the following output for the sshd service:

    $ systemctl status sshd.service
      - sshd.service - OpenSSH server daemon
         Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
         Active: active (running) since Fri 2016-12-16 08:18:17 CET; 4h 58min ago
           Docs: man:sshd(8)
        Process: 1033 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/sshd $OPTIONS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
       Main PID: 1067 (sshd)
          Tasks: 1 (limit: 4915)
         CGroup: /system.slice/sshd.service
                 `-1067 /usr/sbin/sshd

      Dec 16 08:18:17 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting OpenSSH server daemon...
      Dec 16 08:18:17 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: sshd.service: PID file /var/run/ not readable (yet?) after start: No such file or directory
      Dec 16 08:18:17 localhost.localdomain sshd[1067]: Server listening on port 22.
      Dec 16 08:18:17 localhost.localdomain sshd[1067]: Server listening on :: port 22.
      Dec 16 08:18:17 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Started OpenSSH server daemon.

There are also commands available for checking specific states which can be particularly useful for using them in scripts. For example to check if as service is currently active you can use the is-active command:

    $ systemctl is-active application.service

This command will show if the application is active or inactive. If the application is active it will return an exit code of "0". To see if an application is enabled you can use the is-enabled command:

    $ systemctl is-enabled application.service

This command will return wheter the application is enbled or disable and will return an exit code of "0" if the application is enabled. To check if an application has failed you can use the is-failed command:

    $ systemctl is-failed application.service

This command wil return active if the application is running, failed if an error has occured, and inactive or unknown the the service was intentionally stopped. It will return an exit code of "0" if the service has failed.

System state overview

The commands so far have been useful for managing single services. For exploring the the current state of the system there ar a number of systemctl commands that provide more information.

Listing current units

To get a list of all the active units that systemd knows about you can use the list-units command:

    $ systemctl list-units

This command only shows a list of the currently active units. Then output has the following columns:

    UNIT: The systemd unit name
    LOAD: Whether the unit's configuration has been parsed by systemd. The
          configuration of loaded units is kept in memory.
    ACTIVE: A summary state about whether the unit is active. This is usually a
            fairly basic way to tell if the unit has started successfully or not.
    SUB: This is a lower-level state that indicates more detailed information
         about the unit This often varies by unit type, state, and the actual
         method in which the unit runs.
    DESCRIPTION: A short textual description of what the unit is/does/

Because the list-units command only shows the active units by default, all of the entries above will show "loaded" in the LOAD colymn and "active" in the ACTIVE column. This is also the default behaviour of systemctl when called without additional commands, so you will see the same output if you call systemctl without arguments.

    $ systemctl

You can also tell systemctl to output different information by adding additional flags. For instance, to show all units that systemd has loaded, whether they are active or not, you can use the --all flag:

    $ systemctl list-units --all

This will show all units that systemd loaded or attempted to load, regardless of it's current state on the system. It is also possible to filter units by the current state, for this you can use the --state= flag. You will have to keep the --all flag so that systemctl allows non-active units to be disaplayed. For example, if you wish to see all inactive units you can issue the following command:

    $ systemctl --list-units --all --state=inactive

Another filter you can use is the --type= flag. You can tell systemctl to only show the unit types you are interested in. For example, to only show active service units you can use the following command:

    $ systemctl --list-units --type=service

Listing unit files

The list-units command we just used only shows units that systemd has attempted to load into memory. Systemd will only read units that it thinks it need so this will not necessarily include all availble units on the system. To see every unit file that is available in the systemd paths you can use the list-unit-files command instead:

    $ systemctl list-unit-files

Units are representations of resources that systemd knows about. Because systemd has not necessarily read all of the unit definitions in this view it only presents information about hte files themselves. The output of this command shows two columns, the UNIT FILE and the STATE. The STATE column will usually be "enabled","disabled","static" or "masked". For this command static means that the unit file doesn't contain an "install" section which is necessary to enable a service. A unit that has a state of static can't be enable will run a one-off action or is only used as a dependency of another unit. We will cover what "masked" means later.

Unit management

So far we have been working with services an displaying information about the unit files that systemd knows about. With some additional commands we can get more specific information about units.

Displaying a unit file

To display the unit file that systemd has loaded into it's memory you can use the cat command (which was added in systemd version 209). To see the unit file of the atd scheduling daemon you can use to following command:

    $ systemctl cat atd.service

    Description=ATD daemon



The output of this command is the unit file as it's known by the current systemd process. This is important to know if you've recently modified the unit files or if you're overriding certain options.

Displaying dependencies

If we want to see the dependency tree of a service we can use the list-dependencies command:

    $ systemctl list-dependencies sshd.service

This command wil show a hierarchical view of the dependencies that must be dealt with in order to start the unit. Dependencies, in this context, are the units that are required or wanted by the units above it.


    . . .

Recursive dependencies are only displayed for target units which indicate system states. To list all dependencies you can include the --all flag.

To get the reverse dependencies you can add the --reverse flag to the command. Other useful flags are the --before and --after flags which can be used to show units to depend on the specified unit to start before or after them respectivly.

Checking unit properties

To get the low-level properties of a unit you can use the show. This will display a list of properties in a key=value format:

    $ systemctl show sshd.service

    Wants=system.slice auditd.service systemd-journald.socket system.slice
    Description=OpenSSH server daemon

    . . .

To get a single property you can pass the -p flag with the property name. For example, to see the conflicts that the sshd.service unit has you can use the following command:

    $ systemctl show sshd.service -p Conflicts

Masking and unmasking units

In the service management section we showed how to stop or disable a service, but systemd also has the ability to mark a unit as completely unstartable. To do this it creates a symbolic link to /dev/null which is called masking a unit. To do this you can use the mask command:

    $ systemctl mask nginx.service

This wil prevent the Nginx service from being start manually or automatically for as long as it's masked. If you check with the list-unit-files command you will see that the service is now listed as masked:

    $ systemctl list-unit-files

    . . .

    kmod-static-nodes.service              static
    ldconfig.service                       static
    mandb.service                          static
    messagebus.service                     static
    nginx.service                          masked
    quotaon.service                        static
    rc-local.service                       static
    rdisc.service                          disabled
    rescue.service                         static

    . . .

If you try to start the service you will see a message like this:

    $ systemctl start nginx.service

    Failed to start nginx.service: Unit nginx.service is masked.

To unmask a service you can use the unmask command:

    $ systemctl unmask nginx.service

This will return the unit to it's previous start allowing the service to be started or enabled.

Editing unit files

The systemctl command also has the possibility to edit unit files if you need to make adjustments. This functionality was added in systemd version 218.

The edit will open a unit file snipper by default:

    $ systemctl edit nginx.service

This will be a blank file that can be used to override or add properties to the unit definition. A directory will be created within the /etc/systemd/system directory which will have the name of the unit with .d appended. For example, for the nginx.service, a directory callend nginx.service.d will be created.

If you want to edit the full unit file, instead of adding a snippet, you can pass the --full flag:

    $ systemctl edit --full nginx.service

This will load the current unit file into the editor where you can modify it. When the editor exits the changes will be written to /etc/systemd/system. This new file will take precedence over the system unit definition (usually found somewhere in /lib/systemd/system).

To remove any additions you have meid you can either remove the units .d configuration directory or the modiefied service file from /etc/systemd/system. For instance, to remove a snipper, you can type:

    $ rm -r /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service.d

To remove a full modified unit file you can type:

    $ rm /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service

After remove thile file or directory you should reload the systemd process so that it no longer attempts to reference the file and reverts back to using the system copies. You can do this by using the daemon-reload command:

    $ systemctl daemon-reload

Adjusting the system start (runlevel) with targets

Targets are special unit files that describe a system state. Like other units the files that define targets can be identified by their suffix which in this case is .target. Targets don't do much themselves but ar used to group other units together.

These targets can be used to bring the system to a certain state, much like other init systems use runlevels. They are used as a reference for when certain functions are available allowing you to specify the desired state instead of the individual units needed to produce the same state.

For instance, there is a which is used to indicate that swap is ready for use. Units that are part of this process can sync with this target by indicating in their configuration files that they are wanted by or required by the Unit that require swap to be available can specify this condition by using the wants, requires, and after properties to indicate the natur of their relationship.

Getting and setting the default target

Systemd has a default target that is used when booting the system. Satisfying the cascade of dependencies from that target will bring the system into the desired state. To get the default target of your system you can use the get-default command:

    $ sytemctl get-default

If you want to set another target as the default you can use the set-default command. For example, if you want to use the graphical desktop as default you can change this with the following command:

    $ systemctl set-default

Listing available targets

You can get a list of the available targets using the list-unit-files command in combination with the --type=target filter:

    $ systemctl list-unit-files --type=target

Unlike with runlevels it's possible to have multiple targets active at the same time. An active target indicates that systemd has attempted to start all of the units tied to the target and has not tried to tear them down again. To see all active targets use the following command:

    $ systemctl list-units --type=target

Isolating targets

It's possible to start all the units that are associated with a target and to stop all units that are not part of the dependency tree. The command we can use for this is the isolate command. This is similar to changing the runlevel in other init systems.

For example, if you are working in a graphical environment with active, you can shutdown the graphical system by isolating the Since is a dependency of and not the other way around, the isolate command will stop all the graphical units.

You may wish to take a look at the dependencies of the target you're isolating to make sure you don't stop any services that are vital to you:

    $ systemctl list-dependencies

When you're satisfied with the units that will be kept alive you can isolate the target:

    $ systemctl isolate

Using shortcuts for important events

Some targets are defined for important events like powering off or rebooting. However systemctl also has some shortcuts that add a bit of additional functionality.

For instance, to put the system into rescue (single-user in System V init terms) mode you can just use the rescue instead of isolate

    $ systemctl rescue

This command will also provide the additional functionallity of alerting all logged in users about the event in comparison with the isolate command. To halt the system you can use the halt command:

    $ systemctl halt

To initiate a full shutdown you can use the poweroff command:

    $ systemctl poweroff

To reboot the system you can use the reboot command:

    $ systemctl reboot

Not that most systems will link the shorter, more conventional, commands for these operations so they will work properly with systemd. For example, to reboot a system you can usually type:

    $ reboot